by bashob September 18, 2016
Theory related to this GMAT Critical reasoning free practice test – GMAT Critical Reasoning Theory
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GMAT Critical Reasoning - Assumptions
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The per capita income figure published by the government may not be exact, but it does present a fairly accurate picture. Since a considerable segment of the population falls below the minimum income level for filing income tax, it is hard to keep track of their incomes and consequently they are represented statistically as if they had no income. However, one must keep in mind that a large number of the wealthy also have a tendency to understate their income. Which of the following is assumption on which the argument above depends?
Both the rich and the poor have a tendency to avoid filing, or misrepresent their incomes when filing, tax returns.
The per capita income distribution results are published by the government's income tax department.
The least wealthy segment's legally unreported income is a similar amount to the wealthiest segment's illegally unreported income.
The number of people below minimum income level is approximately equal to the number of wealthy people who under report their incomes.
The primary purpose of the study is to analyze the economic status of the country by assessing the per capita income of various segments of the population.
Question 1 Explanation:
In this argument, the conclusion is that the published figure is fairly accurate. This conclusion is based on two pieces of data that create opposing distortions in the figure: 1. the government lacks information from the lower income earners, so the average will look higher than it actually is; 2. high income earners report a lower income than they actually receive. These two effects cancel out, according to the author's argument, and the resulting income figure is fairly accurate. What is a possible assumption the author is making? We can think of a few: First that the two effects are equal; second, that the government only has income information from taxes that are filed. If we scan the answer choices, (C) and (D) resemble the first assumption we mentioned, so one of them is the answer. When we examine both choices, we see that Choice (C) is more correct than Choice (D): the key assumption is that the amount of unreported income is similar on both ends of the income spectrum, not that the number of people is similar (this would actually result in figures that do not cancel out). The correct answer is Choice (C).
In recent years, some painters of graffiti have been winning recognition as artists. But, since graffiti is vandalism, painting graffiti is inherently an act of rebellion and lawbreaking. For this reason, painting graffiti is not art. Which of the following is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reason given for that conclusion?
Some graffiti is painted in remote places, where it will not be used by any law enforcer or anyone else.
Some painters of graffiti are more concerned than other with the illegal nature of the paintings they produce.
Painters of graffiti should be more concerned with the illegality of their paintings than they currently are.
An object is not an art object if its maker might be motivated primarily by questions of whether or not creating that object is permissible.
Artists are not concerned with the monetary value of their products.
Question 2 Explanation:
The argument presented is very thin. The first sentence gives an introduction and the second two sentences are argument. There is a missing connection between "lawbreaking" and what constitutes art. The author assumes that you can be an artist only if you are not a law breaker. Among the options, option (D) meets the author's assumption most closely. It does not use the word lawbreaking, but it hits on the key matter, the conditional definition of art: it's not art if the maker is a rebel. The other options are very vague and do not hit the main matter. Correct option is (D)
Since publicly traded companies opt to shield some negative information about their company from the market, negative information tends to be shared progressively less and in wider communication channels of a company's organization. The public is, therefore, has less negative information about a publicly traded company than do the company's employees of the most private circles, such as the CEO. The conclusion drawn above is based on the assumption that
positive information flows freely through the communication channels of a publicly traded company
employees of a publicly traded company never leak private information about that company to the market
CEOs and other members of the most private circles of a publicly traded company are willing to distort the perceived truth about the company in order to defend the company's share price
the public obtains negative information about a public company only from sources within that company
the public wants all relevant information about a publicly traded company, positive and negative
Question 3 Explanation:
In this question we can look for logical confirmation of the correct answer: If (A) is negated, the conclusion is truer, if anything. So (A) is out. We'll negate (B); even if employees leak information sometimes, if it's shared progressively less as it propagates outward, the argument is still true, because the leak was either on the outside and there was less info to leak, or it leaked near the center but got muffled on the way to the outside. So (B) is out. We negate (C); if CEOs were unwilling to distort information, that wouldn't hurt the argument, because the information could still be "shielded"; (C) is not very relevant. We like (D). We skip forward and swiftly call (E) irrelevant. Back to (D), our favorite. We'll negate it: if the public obtains information from outside the company -- maybe lots of information or superior information, even then the public doesn't necessary have less negative information. (D) is evidently a critical assumption. Correct answer is (D).
Since neighboring country Bordland dropped all tariffs on imports of our country's automobiles one year ago, the number of automobiles sold annually in Bordland has not changed. However, recent statistics show a drop in the number of automobile factory workers in Bordland. Meanwhile, the number of people employed by automobile factories in our country has long been significantly higher than Bordland. Therefore, updated trade statistics will probably indicate that the number of automobiles Bordland imports annually from our country has increased. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Automobiles assembled in our country are preferred in Bordland to automobiles assembled in Bordland.
The number of automobile assemblers in our country has increased by at least as much as the number of automobile assemblers in Bordland has decreased.
The average number of person-hours it takes a Bordland automobile assembler to assemble an automobile has not decreased significantly during the last twelve months.
The number of automobiles assembled annually in our country has increased.
The difference between the hourly wage of automobile assemblers in our country and the hourly wage of automobile assemblers in Bordland is likely to decrease in the next few years.
Question 4 Explanation:
The author primarily says three things, first that the number of workers in Bordland have decreased, second that the number of workers in our country has remained stagnant and third that the automobile demand in Bordland is stagnant. So, if the automobile demand in Bordland is stagnant, then the only way the Bordland imports from our country will not increase is if the efficiency of the workers in Bordland remains the same. Only answer C, touches this fact. Hence, answer (C) is the correct answer.
Consuming gluten, a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related grains, causes allergic reactions in some adults. Medical records indicate that the percentage of adults in our country who have seen a doctor for gluten allergies has increased significantly in the last four years. Either our adults have been exposed to more gluten, or they have developed a greater sensitivity to them. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
The number of doctors specializing in nutrition in our country has not decreased over the past four years.
Adults who are allergic to gluten are no more likely than other adults to have allergies to other food ingredients.
Adults who have allergic reactions to gluten are no more likely to see a doctor for treatment now than they were four years ago.
In our country, either more gluten has been introduced into foods artificially, or adults have eaten more food naturally containing gluten.
The percentage of population in our country of adult age has not changed relative to four years ago.
Question 5 Explanation:
The author concludes in the argument that the number of adults suffering from gluten related allergy has increased. Option (C) is the only option that adds credibility to the author's conclusion. Because if the likelihood of patients visiting the doctor remained the same over the four years, then it directly indicates that the increased number of patients is because of increased number of gluten related allergy. Hence, the correct answer is (C)
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by bashob - Sep 18, 2016